In environmental justice, ecocide is the criminalised activity of substantially harming or destroying ecosystems in their entirety or by harming individual species. At time of writing, 10 countries have criminalised ecocide, but the effectiveness of these laws depends on the ability and willingness to enforce them. 
 Gürdür Broo, D., Lamb, K., Juvenile Ehwi, R., Anneli Pärn, E., 2020. Four Futures, One Choice: Options for the Digital Built Britain of 2040. Researchgate.